How to Get a Job After a Year (or More) Out of Work

Strategies and wisdom for reaching the light at the end of the job-searching tunnel.

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Slide Show: 8 Steps to Getting Hired After a Long Time Unemployed

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As the Senate considers yet another extension of unemployment benefits, it has become increasingly clear that the biggest issue in the recession-charred job market involves a little less than 7 million people: the "long-term unemployed." These are the workers who have been unemployed—and actively looking for work—for at least six months, and often for much, much longer. Last month, they made up nearly half of the entire pool of unemployed. And as time goes by, this group's struggle to find work only becomes more challenging.

[Slideshow: 8 Steps to a Job After a Long Unemployment.]

The 6.8 million long-term unemployed aren't all from the manufacturing lines in Flint—they cross industries and sectors, ages and education levels. Before the start of the recession, the financial services sector had among the lowest average durations of unemployment, at less than 16 weeks, according to an analysis by the National Employment Law Project. Today, financial services ranks No. 1 for average unemployment, with an average stint of 33 weeks of unemployment among the jobless in the sector.

If you're among those who have been out of work for many months, or a year (or more) here are some strategies for getting back to work now:

First, stop blaming yourself. Sure, some companies are hiring again. And maybe your friend who lost his or her job two months ago just found a new one. But the job market is still in pretty lousy shape and employers are still, by and large, sitting it out. Last month, a survey of small business owners found that only 18.4 percent believed the recovery would continue into 2011. "Somewhere between 80 and 90 percent saw no benefit from the stimulus bill," says Al Angrisani, founder of Angrisani Turnarounds, which has published the monthly survey over the last six months. Business owners cited a range of new issues: They are starting to see price increases from vendors; they're feeling for the first time the impact of state and local tax increases; there's still little or no access to credit. "This has been the heart of the American economy," says Angrisani, who served as assistant labor secretary under President Reagan.

[See 15 essentials to getting hired.]

Stop wasting your time. As time has gone by, your job search may have gone from a targeted pursuit of relevant positions to an anything-goes, resume free-for-all, as you apply for just about anything within your commuting area. You've got nothing to lose, you figure, by sending your resume in response to every available opening, when it takes so little extra effort online. But some employers have become so overwhelmed by the process of sifting through irrelevant resumes that they've begun to construct discriminatory filters—even refusing resumes from the unemployed. While such a response is extreme, the effort put into flinging your resume around the web can be better directed. "There's nothing that takes the place of a strategic and targeted job search," says Judy Conti, federal advocacy coordinator for the National Employment Law Project. "You will be taken seriously for the jobs for which you are truly well qualified."

Spend most of your time making new friends. Job seekers generally have the best luck finding a job through their friends and contacts, given that nearly a third of external hires are found through referrals. Networking is even more important for people over age 50, according to a study by the Impact Group. New friends can be found in person and quickly connected with online—thank you, Facebook and LinkedIn. Once you've made an online connection, there are easy applications to use to search for jobs where friends work. Check out the Facebook and LinkedIn integrations offered by SimplyHired.com and Indeed.com.

Pitch yourself to your last employer. When the economy was in the pits early last year and late 2008, employers were cutting payrolls with hatchets rather than scalpels. Many companies cut too deep, and as demand has picked up in the nascent recovery, employees have struggled to keep up with their workloads. Still, employers are hesitant to take on permanent hires, so they've been using temps. This presents an opportunity for you, given your institutional knowledge of your last employer and your willingness to take on freelance or contract work. "Going back to former companies and even former bosses or coworkers, wherever they might have gone, is a great strategy," says John Challenger of outplacement firm Challenger, Gray & Christmas. These people know you and your work. That freelance assignment can help you fill a hole in your resume.