The following article comes from the U.S. News ebook, How to Live to 100, which is now available for purchase.
Marriage is, for many people, their most important relationship, the source of much happiness, and, for some, even adds extra years to their life. So, what is it about marriage that's so important to us? And what happens within a marriage to produce happiness and well-being?
"Married people overall do better on virtually every indicator of health and well-being," says Robin Simon, a sociology professor and researcher at Wake Forest University. "Even when they get sick, married people are more likely to recover."
Other researchers have found that marriage's well-being advantage has narrowed and perhaps even disappeared compared with other types of living arrangements. The prevalence and social acceptance of unmarried couples and people choosing to live alone have risen a lot in recent years. "Over the last 30 years, the health gap between the married and never-married has narrowed to almost nothing," says Debra J. Umberson, a sociology professor and researcher at the University of Texas.
"I do believe the gap between marriage and cohabitation is not as wide as people think," Simon agrees, although she feels marriage still comes out ahead. "It's really not as much about marriage as having an intimate partner," she says. "In all of my work, marriage is good. Intimacy is good."
Intimacy, trust, and commitment form one component of the four resources experts cite as giving married people an upward boost in happiness and well-being. The others are:
While the link between marriage and well-being has been intensely studied, predicting marital success is difficult. Exactly which people are likely to make successful spouses, and what can they do to increase the odds of being successful and happy in marriage?
Rates of divorce have recently declined, but marriages and other intimate relationships seem to have an underlying survival rate of only 50 to 60 percent, notes Andrew Cherlin, a professor of sociology and public policy at Johns Hopkins University.
"The state of marriage is that it's going in two directions," he adds. "For people with a college degree, marriage is still going strong." However, Cherlin explains, "for people with less education, there's less marriage, more break-ups, more children born out of marriage, and more stress." Happy marriage outcomes are much less common in such households.
We're getting married later, which might contribute to successful outcomes. The median age for a man's first marriage is nearly 27½, and for women, it's over 25½. Married women are waiting longer to have children, and there is increasing parity in all key metrics between men and women.
Another predictor of successful marriages, Umberson says, is the quality of a couple's childhood relationship with their parents. "The kind of relationships you have with your parents growing up are predictive of marital quality in adulthood," she says. Further, they're "predictive of the quality of all relationships in general."
Finally, there is a chicken-and-egg component to successful marriages. "People who are married are happier than people who aren't," Cherlin says. "The question is how much of this is cause and how much is effect?" While natural selection surely has an impact here, Cherlin says, "people who are inherently happy are more likely to get married, but marriage makes them even healthier."