14 Investing Ideas for 2014

The next year is loaded with uncertainty, but planning ahead can help reduce it.

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You've heard the phrase "past performance is not a guarantee of future returns" so often that it has probably lost its meaning. But it's a good reminder as you look ahead to next year's money plans.

"This was an extraordinary year for stocks. Nobody expected them to be up 20 percent by now. But it was a very treacherous and challenging time for the bond market," says Jonathan Lewis, chief investment officer of Samson Capital Advisors. But he says markets "were largely detached" from outside economic factors this year, and he sees that disconnect as worrisome.

One big difference for 2014: Investors can plan for the next year without immediate worries about the "fiscal cliff" they were facing at the start of 2013. But the coming year also promises a continuation and perhaps an escalation of Washington's budget battle, a chance that the Federal Reserve will let interest rates go higher and concern over a stock market already at record highs.

[See: 10 Target Date Funds Producing High-Grade Nest Eggs.]

So how can you invest in such uncertain times? Here 14 ideas from investment firms and advisors on what do in 2014.

1. Take a fresh look at income investments. After an exodus of more than $100 billion from bond funds so far this year, Robert Tipp, chief investment strategist of Prudential Fixed Income says, "People are giving up on a lot of potential income." That doesn't mean investors should jump back into long-term government bonds. But mutual funds made up of high-yield bonds can do well in a stronger economy. With rates still uncertain, most strategist advise staying in short- to medium-term bond funds (those that describe themselves as "low duration").

2. Make decisions that take new tax changes into account. The top tax rate has gone up to 39.6 percent on income. It kicks in on incomes above $400,000, and a new Medicare tax of 3.8 percent on investment income starts at the $200,000 level. "I don't think investors have fully absorbed these tax changes yet," says Vern Sumnicht of wealth advisory firm Sumnicht & Associates. Get professional advice on the complex tax code, Sumnicht says, but he warns: "Allocating investments purely for tax purposes is not the best economic idea unless you have a tax problem."

3. Prepare for a weaker dollar. The dollar has remained relatively stable this year, but the long-term downtrend might resume. Samson Capital's Lewis, a currency specialist, says 2014 will be a "weak dollar environment" due to a sluggish economy and still-low interest rates, which points to "commodity-friendly" investments and stocks of companies that earn income from abroad.

4. Rebalance in a way that reflects today's market. Maria Bruno, an investment analyst at the Vanguard Investment Strategy Group, says, "Rebalance your portfolio if you find your asset allocation has drifted by more than 5 percent." (Generally, it should be 60 percent stocks and 40 percent bonds, with a higher mix of equities the further you are from retirement.) With rates uncertain, "shorten the duration of the 40 percent bond portion," says Sam Stovall, chief equity strategist of S&P Capital IQ.

5. Make retirement account contributions as early in the new year as possible. Vanguard's Bruno says to do this "as early as possible in the year so you can start taking advantage of tax-advantaged growth." You can put up to $5,500, and $1,000 more if you are 50-plus as a "catch-up" contribution. (The deadline for the 2013 tax year is April 15.)

[Read: Lessons From a Market Panic: Beware of 'Safe' Yields.]

6. Try a seasonal approach. S&P Capital IQ's Stovall says using seasonal patterns can boost investing gains. The November to April period is stronger than May through October. "It doesn't mean 'go away in May,' as some people say," Stovall explains. The stock strategy: Be more aggressive in winter and spring with consumer discretionaries, industrials and materials. Get defensive in summer and fall with pharmaceuticals and consumer staples. Over the long term, the strategy has produced double the returns of the Standard & Poor's 500 index (6.7 percent vs. 13 percent since 1945).