Recreation and culture. Throughout much of your life, your career dictates where you live. Retirement allows you the freedom to select a desirable place to live, whether than means surrounding yourself with golf courses, art galleries, water views, or hiking trails. Linda Nelson, 63, a retired teacher's aid in Pataskala, Ohio, spends part of each month in a mobile home community in Gatlinburg, Tenn., primarily to take advantage of the recreational opportunities there. She likes to go river tubing and hiking, especially in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. "You can go see a different waterfall every day of the week," Nelson says.
Many seniors use retirement as an opportunity to upgrade to what they describe as a better home (132,000 people) or a neighborhood with less crime (32,000 people), the Census Bureau found. "College towns are always great because they have tremendous resources, including arts and lecture series, concerts, and performances," says Bert Sperling, founder of BestPlaces.net. "Even in the middle-of-nowhere colleges will bring in really interesting acts and speakers to speak to students, and people in town can often partake of those."
Job or volunteer opportunities. A part-time job or second career is increasingly becoming a part of the retirement years. If you plan to continue working, consider the health of the economy before moving to a new place, and look for cities with interesting part-time job or consulting opportunities. Many retirees also pursue volunteer work for the community and social benefits. John Larson, 83, a retired photographer in Oshkosh, Wis., volunteers several days per month at the Experimental Aviation Association's museum. "I don't have to travel the world to meet people interested in space and aviation," he says. "They all show up here sooner or later, especially the last week of July at the Air Venture fly-in."
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Proximity to healthcare. Your healthcare needs are likely to increase as you age. Some 150,000 people changed residences for health reasons in 2011, typically after age 75. Any retirement spot you are considering should have health and elder-care facilities and doctors who specialize in taking care of older patients. "If you have a country home someplace that is out in the middle of nature and you develop health problems later on, it can be hard to get to healthcare or to get an ambulance to come to you," says Suzanne Salamon, associate chief for geriatric clinical programs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. "When you get older, you see a lot of specialists. It's easier if you are in an area where all these specialists are fairly close by."
Convenient transportation. Many retirees eventually reach a point where they can't or no longer want to drive. When this happens, other methods of transportation are essential. Consider whether a city has public transportation options or affordable taxi or van services for seniors. Boone, N.C., and Corvallis, Ore., for example, have free bus systems for all residents, and those age 65 and older can ride the bus for free in Ann Arbor, Mich., and State College, Penn. Seniors in Amherst, Mass., can use a senior van service that costs between $2.50 and $3.50 per ride.
Amenities for seniors. As you age, you may increasingly need assistance with errands, yard work, and household chores. Some cities have nonprofit aging-in-place communities that provide a range of services such as home maintenance, transportation, and meal services in exchange for an annual fee. You might also be interested in socializing at a senior center, using a senior citizen tuition waiver at a local college, or getting senior discounts from local retailers. Check out the perks and privileges offered to senior citizens, even if you are not yet old enough to qualify.